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Policy

Funds Needed

Per-capita annual cost of the four “best buy” tobacco control measures

0 - 0.09
0.1 - 0.0499
0.5 - 4
No Data

The four measures include: tobacco tax increases, smoke-free policies, package warnings, and advertising bans. The estimates include the human resources and physical capital needed to plan, develop, implement, monitor and enforce the policies.

Per-capita annual cost of the four “best buy” tobacco control measures

Cost Effectiveness: “With […] cost-effectiveness rivalled only by basic childhood immunisations, few public investments provide greater dividends” –World Health Organization, 1997

Cost-Benefit

Savings created by tobacco control interventions; in millions USD, 2013
 
MISSOURI, USA
TAIWAN, CHINA
UNITED KINGDOM
AUSTRALIA
GERMANY

 
Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Initiative: Smoke-free policy change
Outpatient Smoking Cessation Services program: Counseling and nicotine replacement therapy
Taxation: 5% increase in cigarette price
Australian National Tobacco Campaign: Intensive 6-month mass media
anti-smoking campaign
Smoke-free Class Competition: Reward non-smoking classes to
prevent students from becoming established smokers

NET SAVINGS
$62M
over remaining lifetime of 5761 quitters
$224M
over 15% years
$18,461M
over 50 years
$912M
over remaining lifetime of 190,000 quitters
$25M
over 1 year

EXAMPLES OF HOW THESE SAVINGS COULD BE SPENT
Annual budget for restoration and conservation of Missouri’s forests and wildlife.
Taiwan’s annual government budget for environmental protection.
Government annual spending on industry, agriculture and employment.
Australia’s annual governmental investment in early childhood education.
Government annual spending on helping ethnic Germans living in Eastern Europe.

“Today, many of the threats to health that contribute to noncommunicable diseases come from corporations that are big, rich and powerful, driven by commercial interests, and far less friendly to health. Forget collaboration with the tobacco industry. Never trust this industry on any count, in any deal. Implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Doing so can avert around 5.5 million deaths each year at a cost, in a low-income setting, of less than 40 cents per person. There is no other “best buy” for the money on offer.”-Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO, 2011

“‘Illicit’ is the industry’s perfect response to controls on tobacco” -Anna Gilmore, professor of public health at the University of Bath.

The UK employs thousands of well-equipped staff working to detect, investigate, and stop the illicit tobacco trade. Each year, at a cost of under GBP100 million, this strategy PREVENTS A LOSS OF GBP1 BILLION in tobacco taxes: A return on investment of 10 to 1.

Industry Propaganda

Illegal cigarettes: Who’s in control?, a video created and distributed by British American Tobacco, tries again to link government regulation of the tobacco market to illicit trade and organized crime.

1/2

Even in the United Kingdom, where almost 90% of the retail price of cigarettes is tax, half of recent price increases (6p of 12p) ARE DIRECTLY ATTRIBUTABLE TO INDUSTRY PRICING STRATEGIES, and not to the tax increases themselves.

“Sugar, rum, and tobacco, are commodities which are nowhere necessaries of life, [but] which are … objects of almost universal consumption,and which are therefore EXTREMELY PROPER SUBJECTS OF TAXATION.”–Adam Smith, 1778, United Kingdom

In 2012, Costa Rica earmarked the funds raised from a tobacco tax increase to be DEDICATED TO TOBACCO CONTROL efforts, including surveillance and research capacity building.

Graphic packet warning labels

Number of rounds of graphic warnings, 2015

3 - 10
2 - 2
1 - 1
0 - 0

Number of rounds of graphic warnings, 2015

“The market competes on addiction—the most addictive products win out. With research, they [firms], like the cigarette companies, may find out which of their ingredients is most effective in increasing sales/addiction. […]they are loath to give up these profit opportunities, no matter the costs to society.” Joseph E. Stiglitz, Recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, 2008

Income Up In Smoke

Percentage of median household income needed to buy 10 of the cheapest brand of cigarettes per day, 2012

10 - 100
7.5 - 9.99
5 - 7.49
2.5 - 4.99
0 - 2.49
No Data

This represents the drain on household income from a single person smoking a reasonable number of cigarettes per day. This spending will make being impoverished that much more difficult.

Percentage of median household income needed to buy 10 of the cheapest brand of cigarettes per day, 2012

Plastic Bans

India banned plastic wrapping for tobacco products
in 2011

Environmental & Public Health Benefits

  • Passed in an effort to decrease plastic litter and toxic environmental waste
  • Paper packaging increased prices and decreased sales and consumption of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco in Jaipur, Rajasthan
  • Decreased consumption could confer health benefits such as decreased cancer rates
  • Lack of plastic packages may discourage customers

“I will quit if plastic sachets are no more available” Satyabipra Patra, 9-year gutka user, 2011

In 2007, South Australia became the first Australian state to ban smoking in cars in which children were travelling. “While it is an adult’s right to choose to smoke and expose themselves to all the associated and well-known health risks, this ban aims to protect children who could not otherwise protect themselves.” –Katy Gallagher, Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory, 2012

Based on a survey in 15 low- and middle-income countries in 2008–2011, people are 61% more likely to make their homes smoke- free voluntarily if smoking in workplace and public place is banned.

Secondhand smoke prevalence

Secondhand smoke exposure (%): in adults age ≥ 15, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2008–2013

Smoking ban in public places have a major effect in reducing exposure to secondhand smoke. For example, Uruguay adopted a comprehensive smoke-free national legislation in 2006. Air nicotine concentrations in public places dropped by 90% in Uruguay from 2002 to 2007.

Resources

Methods

Definition of exposures. Work: among those who work outside of the home who usually work indoors or both indoors and outdoors; restaurants: among those who visited restaurants in the past 30 days; home: somebody smokes in the home at least monthly.

Sources

Blanco-Marquizo A, Goja B, Peruga A, Jones MR, Yuan J, Samet JM, et al. Reduction of secondhand tobacco smoke in public places following national smoke-free legislation in Uruguay. Tobacco control. 2010;19(3):231-4.

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